in Vitro

Risk Characterization and Probabilistic Concentration–Response Modeling of Complex Environmental Mixtures Using New Approach Methodologies (NAMs) Data from Organotypic in Vitro Human Stem Cell Assays

Abstract Background: Risk assessment of chemical mixtures or complex substances remains a major methodological challenge due to lack of available hazard or exposure data. Therefore, risk assessors usually infer hazard or risk from data on the subset of constituents with available toxicity values. Objectives: We evaluated the validity of the widely used traditional mixtures risk assessment paradigms, Independent Action (IA) and Concentration Addition (CA), with new approach methodologies (NAMs) data from human cell-based in vitro assays.