(ILOSH103-A307) Occupational lead exposure risk

Assessing health risks for workers in high lead exposed factories

Recent researches found that the lead-exposed workers may suffer adverse health effects under current regulated blood lead (BPb) standard. The main purpose of this study is to assess the health risk of hematopoietic dysfunction for workers at lead-exposed factories and provide the novel BPb standard which can improve the health for lead-exposed workers. The BPb and indicators of hematopoietic function were firstly collected as study data and categorized according to different facilities and manufacturing processes for worker by health examination record. We correlated the BPb levels with indicators of hematopoietic function to construct dose-response relationships. Benchmark dose (BMD) approach was further applied to estimate the effect threshold of abnormal indicators. A risk-based probabilistic model was used to characterize the potential hazard of lead poisoning for jobs-specific workers by hazard index (HI). We applied Bayesian decision analysis to determine whether the BMD can be implicated as suitable initiative standard for health management. Results found that BPb was correlated with all indicators of hematopoietic function for male workers significantly (p<0.05). The estimated distribution of $BMD_{10}$ can be simulated as normal distribution of 48.3 ± 10.26 μg/dL for male workers and 25.9 ± 6.35 μg/dL for female workers. The results of risk assessment showed that HI for total lead-exposed workers was estimated 0.78 (95% confidence interval: 0.50 − 1.26) with risk occurrence probability of 11.1%. In decision analysis, the abnormal risk of anemia indicators for male workers can reduce 67%–76.9% by adopting the BMD as suggested BPb standard. In addition, the abnormal risk of anemia indicators for female worker can reduce 85.5%–95.0% by adopting the BMD as suggested BPb standard of 15 μg/dL. This study suggests that current health management for BPb should be revised to protect more lead workers.


  • 研究報吿1
  • 簡訊2

近期研究發現鉛暴露勞工即使血中鉛濃度低於目前健康管理標準,依然有可能對 健康產生不利的影響。本研究主要目的為評估鉛工廠中勞工造血功能指標異常之健康 風險,同時亦提出一血中鉛建議標準以改善鉛作業勞工健康。本研究首先由鉛作業勞 工健康檢查紀錄收集血中鉛及造血功能指標之資料,並依不同工廠及製程加以分類, 接著由此資料建立血中鉛及造血功能指標之相關性,透過標記劑量(Benchmark dose)模 型推估造成指標異常之門檻濃度,並應用一機率風險為基礎之模型,以危害指標對不 同作業類別之鉛暴露勞工進行風險特性描述,最後利用貝式(Bayesian)決策分析來判定 推估的標記劑量是否適用於作為一新的健康管理標準。研究結果發現男性勞工血中鉛 與血液指標有顯著的統計相關性(p<0.05),而推估增加 10%血液指標異常的標記劑量可 由常態分佈模擬,在男女性勞工的平均值分別為 48.3±10.3 μg/dL 及 25.9±6.4 μg/dL。風 險評估的結果顯示目前鉛作業勞工整體的危害指標為 0.78 (95%信賴區間:0.50 − 1.26),風險發生的機率為 11.1%。貝式決策分析結果發現以標記劑量做為男性血中鉛 標準,有 67%–76.9%的機率可以降低血液指標異常,此外以標記劑量做為女性血中鉛 標準,有 85.5%–95.0%的機率可以降低血液指標異常。本研究建議目前血中鉛健康管 理標準應該持續修訂以保障更多鉛作業勞工健康。


. Anemia risk in relation to lead exposure in lead-related manufacturing. BMC Public Health, 2017.

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