Assessing the fine particles-associated health risks for workers in workplace
- SOT Poster1
Air pollution has become the major issue for public health. In which, fine particulate matter (PM) is the risk factor that can cause respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Some environmental regulations have been established to protect people from health effects. However, it still need more reference criterion to understand the fine PM-induced health effects for each occupational population and to further conduct the health protection strategies. The study purpose was to assess the fine PM-associated health risk for workers in workplaces. We compared the workers’ health risks under environmental and occupational workplaces by systematic literature review and meta-analysis. We used fixed and random effects models in meta-analysis to assess the specific disease risk that might cause by fine PM, including morbidity and mortality. We further used risk ratio as associated indicator in risk assessment. Results show that the fine PM-associated lung cancer had the highest mortality risk in workplace. The estimated risk ratio was 1.25 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.42) by random effects model. The fine PM also had significant relationships with cardiovascular diseases in workplace. The estimated risk ratio was 1.24 (1.19, 1.30) by random effects model. According to the results, traffic emission fine PM would induced the significant health risk of lung cancer for workers. It’s similar with environmental fine PM-associated health effect. Metal fumes in workplace is the major risk factor that can cause cardiovascular diseases. Compare with the fine PM from ambient atmospheric environment, the study result showed that fine PM from ambient air can only cause lower mortality risk for workers’ cardiovascular diseases. It can also increase the mortality risk for heart disease but insignificant. This study suggests that we should consider the composition characteristics, particle size distribution, and resource to further estimate the fine PM-induced health risk for workers.
近幾年空氣汙染已成為公共衛生的主要議題,而空氣汙染中的細懸浮微粒已被認 為是造成許多呼吸道及心血管疾病的主要風險因子。目前國內已建立了環境標準,來 保護國民避免空氣汙染所產生的健康危害。然而針對作業場所的勞工,這些細懸浮微 粒的暴露危害則需要更進一步的參考準則,來了解在空氣汙染的情況下,細懸浮微粒 對各職業族群可能產生的健康風險,以擬定健康保護策略。本研究主要目的研究為評 估細懸浮微粒對作業場所勞工之危害風險。透過系統性文獻回顧的方式再以統合分析 (meta-analysis)方法,針對不同作業場所勞工,比較在環境及作業場所細懸浮微粒的暴 露之下,細懸浮微粒對勞工的健康危害風險。在本研究的統合分析方法中,同時利用 固定影響模型(fixed effect model)及隨機影響模型(random effects model)探討細懸浮微 粒對勞工可能產生的特定健康危害,包括疾病事件發生及死亡風險,最後以風險比(risk ratio)來做為風險評估之關聯性指標。本研究結果發現作業場所的細懸浮微粒暴露對本 研究職業族群的死亡風險之探討以肺癌為最高,以隨機影響模型進行風險推估之風險 比為 1.25(95%信賴區間:1.09, 1.42),其次為缺血性心臟病。作業場所的細懸浮微粒 暴露對本研究探討職業族群的心血管疾病發生亦有顯著的健康危害風險,以隨機影響 模型進行風險推估之風險比為 1.24 (1.19, 1.30)。從本研究結果可發現為來自於交通 的細懸浮微粒對勞工有較顯著的危害風險,而主要的健康危害則為肺癌,此一結果也 與環境細懸浮微粒所造成的健康危害相似,而作業場所內產生的金屬燻煙等細懸浮微 粒亦是造成心血管疾病發生之風險因子。與源自於周界大氣環境的細懸浮微粒相比, 本研究的資料顯示其對勞工的心血管疾病死亡僅有較低的正向風險,同時亦有可能會 增加勞工心臟病死亡風險但不具統計顯著性。因此建議未來仍需加強了解勞工暴露的 細懸浮微粒組成特性、粒徑分佈及來源,才可推估其對勞工健康危害的風險。